1. The transcription factor p53, designated as the guardian of the human genome, controls approximately _____ of human gene promotors that contain p53-binding sites.A. 1% B. 10% C. 50% D. 90%
2. Several miRNAs detected in human and bovine milk are known suppressors of the gene expressing p53.A. True B. False
3. Consumption of commercial milk was found to result in a dose-dependent increase of _____ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy adult human volunteers associated with corresponding changes in gene expression.A. miRNA-21 B. miRNA-25 C. miRNA-29b D. miRNA-148a
4. All of the following describe miRNA-125b, except for:A. It is a negative regulator of p53 in humans. B. It indirectly represses 20 novel targets in the p53 network including both apoptosis regulators and cell-cycle regulators. C. Human, bovine, and porcine milk all contain abundant miRNA-125b. D. It shares an interspecies miRNA homology.
5. It is generally accepted that DNA hypermethylation destabilizes the genome.A. True B. False
6. There is an intimate interaction between DNA methylation, histone deacetylase and sequence-specific DNA binding activity and the control of growth-regulatory pathways that are disrupted in nearly all cancer cells.A. True B. False
7. Which of the following is by far the most abundant miRNA detected in human and cow’s milk?A. miRNA-21 B. miRNA-25 C. miRNA-29b D. miRNA-148a
8. DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), responsible for DNA methylation in mammals and having a role in gene silencing, is a direct target of:A. miRNA-21 B. miRNA-25 C. miRNA-29b D. miRNA-148a
9. Activation of p53 down-regulates the anti-apoptotic protein _____, the expression of which is absent in benign prostate specimens but high, and associated with higher Gleason score, in prostate cancer.A. Survivin B. FoxO1 C. mTORC1 D. Bak
10. Pasteurization of milk has been introduced into modern dairy technology to:A. Limit bacterial growth B. Eliminate milk’s biological miRNA activity C. Limit bacterial growth and eliminate milk’s biological miRNA activity D. Neither limit bacterial growth nor eliminate milk’s biological miRNA activity
11. Which of the following results in a substantial loss of milk’s exosomal miRNAs?A. Pasteurization B. Homogenization C. Fermentation D. Attacks of digestive enzymes
12. The EPIC-Interact Study demonstrated an inverse association of type 2 diabetes mellitus with a higher combined intake of _____ milk products, compared to an increased association with milk that had not undergone this process.A. Pasteurized B. Homogenized C. Fermented D. None of these demonstrated an inverse association with type 2 diabetes mellitus
13. Daily milk consumption in adolescence, vs. less than daily, was been found to be associated with a 2-fold risk of advanced prostate cancer.A. True B. False
14. An increased risk of prostate cancer has been observed in men who suffered from more severe acne vulgaris.A. True B. False
15. Intake of which of the following has been associated with prostate cancer-specific mortality among U.S. male physicians?A. Whole milk B. Total dairy protein C. Both whole milk and total dairy protein D. Neither whole milk nor total dairy protein
16. All of the following statements about IGF-1 and/or mTORC1 are true, except for:A. Serum levels of IGF-1 increase during milk intake. B. IGF-1 inhibits mTORC1 activity. C. Increased mTORC1 signaling is associated with milk-induced acne vulgaris. D. Increased mTORC1 signaling is associated with milk-driven prostate cancer.
17. Which of the following is true with regard to interleukin-6?A. Milk consumption correlates with increased serum levels of IL-6. B. p53 has been identified as a key activator of IL-6. C. Decreased IL-6 expression has been detected in prostate cancer specimens. D. IL-6 is down-regulated in the skin of patients with acne vulgaris.
18. Most clinical prostate cancer specimens overexpress _____, which is regarded as an oncogene of prostate cancer.A. miRNA-21 B. miRNA-30d C. miRNA-125b D. miRNA-148a
19. Milk consumption during anti-androgen therapy of prostate cancer may counteract antiandrogen-induced suppression of miRNA-148a, thereby reducing the level of prostate cancer cell apoptosis.A. True B. False
20. It is advisable to inactivate exosomal milk-derived miRNAs via _____ in order to prevent an unperceived hazardous contamination of the human food chain with oncogenic biosimilar miRNAs of another mammalian species.A. Ultra-heat or microwave treatment B. Ultra-sonication C. Fermentation D. Ultra-heat or microwave treatment, ultra-sonication, and fermentation all inactivate exosomal milk-derived miRNAs
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