Dietitian CE

Sex Differences in Body Composition and Cardiometabolic Risk

1. The distribution of fat has a greater impact on cardiometabolic risk than excess total fat mass.

A. True B. False

2. All of the following are major risk factors for insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome, except for:

A. Visceral adipose tissue B. Intramyocellular lipids C. Intrahepatic lipids D. Lower extremity fat E. All of the above are major risk factors

3. Detailed assessment of ectopic fat compartments revealed higher _____ in women, compared to men.

A. Visceral adipose tissue B. Intramyocellular lipids C. Intrahepatic lipids D. Lower extremity fat E. Women had higher levels in all of the above

4. Which of the following was more strongly associated with measures of adverse cardiometabolic risk in women compared to men?

A. Visceral adipose tissue B. Intramyocellular lipids C. Intrahepatic lipids D. Lower extremity fat E. All of the above

5. Which of the following was more strongly associated with measures of adverse cardiometabolic risk in men compared to women?

A. Visceral adipose tissue B. Intramyocellular lipids C. Intrahepatic lipids D. Lower extremity fat E. All of the above

6. Relatively higher appendicular lean mass was protective against cardiometabolic risk, and this was seen in both sexes.

A. True B. False

7. Given that mortality is higher in men than women across the weight spectrum, it is no surprise that the sex-specific increase in mortality is also greater in men than women as BMI increases.

A. True B. False

8. When women and men were analyzed separately, _____ was more strongly associated with markers of cardiometabolic risk in women compared to men.

A. Visceral adipose tissue B. Intramyocellular lipids C. Intrahepatic lipids D. Lower extremity fat E. All of the above

9. An important complication of obesity is elevated _____ content, which can lead to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which may progress to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis.

A. Visceral adipose tissue B. Intramyocellular lipids C. Intrahepatic lipids D. Lower extremity fat E. All of the above

10. Men were found to have higher _____, which may play an etiologic role in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.

A. Visceral adipose tissue B. Intramyocellular lipids C. Intrahepatic lipids D. Lower extremity fat E. All of the above

11. High _____ content has been shown in states of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia.

A. Visceral adipose tissue B. Intramyocellular lipids C. Intrahepatic lipids D. Lower extremity fat E. All of the above

12. IMCL were associated with higher inflammatory markers in women but not in men.

A. True B. False

13. Which of the following was positively associated with fasting glucose, apolipoprotein B, and fibrinogen in women but not in men, and with lower HDL cholesterol and higher hsCRP in men but not in women?

A. Visceral adipose tissue B. Intramyocellular lipids C. Intrahepatic lipids D. Lower extremity fat E. All of the above

14. Skeletal muscle plays an important role in the regulation of glucose homeostasis, and low muscle mass contributes to increased risk of T2DM.

A. True B. False

15. Findings suggest that increasing muscle mass may be able to offset some of the detrimental effects of ectopic fat in men and women with obesity, independent of changes in fat mass.

A. True B. False


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